Quantum mechanics (what are Fermions and Bosons)

Quantum mechanics (what are Fermions and Bosons)

The universe, as we know it, has two main parts. It is about matter and energy. The basic unit of matter is the atom. We know very well that the atom is made up of nuclei and electrons, and that the nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. With the development of particle physics over the last four decades, physicists have introduced a standard model to explain the nature of subatomic particles. The assumptions made by this standard model have been later verified by various experiments and this has gained wide acceptance.

standard model(Quantum mechanics)

This standard model was built around the mid-70s. It was with the verification of the existence of quarks particles. This standard model describes the behavior and operation of fundamental particles through electromagnetic forces, strong nuclear forces, and weak nuclear forces.

The basic format has two parts.

1. Fermions

2. Bosons

Matter particles called quarks and leptons are generally called fermions. Force carrier particles, which arise from the exchange of energy between them, are called bosons.


Fermions(Quantum mechanics)

As mentioned above, this category includes quarks and leptons. There are six quarks and six lepton particle. Of these filed in pairs, the lighter and more unstable pair is named the first generation, and the heavier and more unstable pairs, the second and third generations, respectively. Generally, the second and third generations are not present in nature but are produced by inhibitory reactions in particle accelerators.

There are six types of quarks.

1.up – u

2.down – d

3.top – t

4.bottom – b

5.charm – c

6.strange – s

However, because it is more unstable, the second and third generations will collapse until the first generation.

In the end, only the up quark and down quark are left. The various combinations of up and down quarks form protons and neutrons, a pair of well-known subatomic particles.

Protons and neutrons are commonly referred to as baryons. For example, a proton consists of two up quarks and a down quark. A neutron is a combination of two down quarks and an up quark.

u+u+d = p

d+d+u = n

There are six types of leptons

  1. Electron-e
  2. the Muon-μ
  3. Tau particles-τ
  4. electron neutrino-υe
  5. muon neutrino-υμ
  6. tau neutrino-υτ

Special mention should be made of leptons. The first generation of leptons, electron and electron neutrino, are two distinct particles. Leptons are particles that can move. That is, they are constantly moving to maintain their stability. That way you can see why only electrons participate in a chemical reaction. The mass of an electron is so small that it is negligible and the charge is negative (-)

When referring to neutrino, they are neutral particles that have no mass or charge and are evenly distributed throughout the universe. Our skin types travel about 65 billion neutrinos every second, per square inch, and they do not affect our bodies or any matter. No object or force field can stop them.

Bosons(Quantum mechanics)


There are four fundamental forces in the universe. When they are sorted in descending order of strength:

01. Strong Force

02. Weak Force

03. Electromagnetism

04. Gravity

No matter where you are in the universe, at least 1 of these forces will work on you. The interactions between matter particles (fermions), which we discussed earlier, occur through these fundamental forces. It is because of these fundamental forces that the fermion particles are properly arranged and the atom is formed and the matter is created.

Strong Force

In the nucleus of an atom, positive (+) charged protons and neutrons are strongly bonded and attracted. Generally, particles of similar charge must be repulsed when they are near one, but at the atomic level (quantum level) the situation is quite different. The reason is the powerful nuclear power mentioned above. That will keep the protons tight.

Weak Force

You may have heard of radioactive isotopes. They become stable isotopes, emitting radiation and neutrons. Or decomposed into other elements. This process is known as the “Particle Decay” and is assisted by the weak nuclear force.


Electromagnetic force and gravity extend to the infinite range. We can hear radio waves emanating from planets located tens of thousands of light-years away from the Earth. Optical light, infrared, ultraviolet, gamma-ray, etc., all come under electromagnetism.


Gravity is the weakest of the four basic forces. It is because of this force of gravity that you are on Earth, the Moon orbits the Earth, and the Earth orbits the Sun. Gravity can spread over an infinite range and even if you get out of the Milky Way galaxy, you can’t escape Earth’s gravity. There is a perception that gravity is so weak compared to other fundamental forces that gravity is leaking to other dimensions/universes.

These basic forces have a corresponding boson. Bosons act as energy transmitting particles of these fundamental forces.

01. Strong Force-Gluon

02. Weak Force-W & Z Bosons

03. Electromagnetism-Photons

04. Gravity-Graviton

But so far, it has not been verified that a boson named graviton actually exists.

Quantum mechanics make me crazy.isn’t it true?


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